use Carp; carp "Be careful!"; # warn of errors (from perspective of caller) croak "We're outta here!"; # die of errors (from perspective of caller) confess "Bye!"; # die of errors with stack backtrace
croak() behave like warn and die,
respectively, except that they report the error as occurring not at the
line of code where they are invoked, but at a line in one of the calling
routines. Suppose, for example, that you have a routine
containing an invocation of
carp(). In that case - and assuming
that the current stack shows no callers from a package other than the
current one -
carp() will report the error as occurring where
goo() was called. If, on the other hand, callers from different
packages are found on the stack, then the error is reported as occurring
in the package immediately preceding the package in which the
carp() invocation occurs.
The intent is to let library modules act a little more like built-in
functions, which always report errors where you call them from.
confess() is like die except that it prints out a stack
backtrace. The error is reported at the line where
invoked, not at a line in one of the calling routines.